Facial Therapies
Acne Treatment
Acne Treatment
Acne is a chronic problem of varying severity and is not just a characteristic of puberty. It occurs more often at younger ages but it can first occur at any age even up to 40, or even after 40: the so-called adult acne. It appears mainly in the face, upper chest and back.

Acne disease is due to sebaceous gland overheating leading to increased sebum production, and to the propionic bacteria of acne causing local inflammation. The truth is that acne is difficult to heal completely. Factors such as skin type, heredity, hormonal imbalance, and others such as anxiety, smoking, gut flora and metabolism are believed to exist.
 
Major types of acne are: 
  • Comedonal acne: It is characterized by the presence of comedones, who can be either "open" or "closed". It is the mildest form of acne, without inflammation in the skin.
  • Papulopustular acne: It occurs with the appearance of papules (red spots) or blisters (red pimples usually accompanied by pus). It is a moderate form, and there is slight inflammation in the skin, suggesting an increase in infection.
  • Papulonodular acne: It is characterized by the combination of more papules and pimples under the skin with a tumor, which usually causes pain. Inflammation is greater, and affects the face, back and other parts of the body. If not treated in time, it is in danger of becoming cystic.
  • Cystic acne: It occurs with the appearance of cysts, which are pimples larger in size than nodules and are mainly found on the face (forehead and around the mouth), back and chest. It is the most severe and painful form of acne. If not treated properly, it leaves scars. Inflammation is mainly due to a microbe, the propionibacterium of acne.

How Is Acne Treated?
The most frequently used acne treatment is local treatment, using:
  • Local retinoids such as tretinoin. They reduce the number of pimples and inhibit the development of new lesions. In addition, they have significant antiinflammatory activity, inhibiting leukocyte activity, releasing proinflammatory cytokines and other mediators involved in immunomodulation.
  • Retinoids are particularly irritating and therefore it is recommended to use them during the night. Irritability can be reduced through the initial use of retinoids every other night or through the simultaneous use of a moisturizing product. They are also particularly useful in dark skin patients, as they may reduce the degree of post-inflammatory hyperpigmentation.
  • Benzene peroxide. Treatment is usually applied once or twice a day. Benzene peroxide can cause skin irritation and scaling. Irritability will also be reduced by lowering the frequency of application once a day or every other day. Allergic contact dermatitis rarely develops, which is evident due to itching and not due to a tingling or burning sensation.
  • Local antibacterials. such as clindamycin and erythromycin. Generally, they are well tolerated and effective in mild to moderate inflammatory acne. However, the use of these topical antibiotics alone is not recommended due to the increasing resistance to antibiotics. Simultaneous use of a topical retinoid will speed up the response and allow a faster discontinuation of the antibiotic.
  • Sulfur, salicylic acid and resorcinol. Sulfacetamide-sulfur combination products have a moderate degree of efficacy in both acne and rosacea. The use of these formulations should be avoided in patients with known hypersensitivity to sulphonamides. 
  • Azelaic acid. It is a dicarboxylic acid that does not involve many undesirable reactions and has some efficacy for both inflammatory and comedonal acne.
  • For medium to severe acne it is often recommended to use oral antibiotics as contraceptives. The most common are:
  • Tetracycline: It is the safest and most affordable option, offering a positive response to many patients. It is usually given at an initial dose between 250 and 500 mg 1 to 4 times a day, with gradual dose reduction depending on the clinical response.
  • Doxycycline: The usual dose is 50 - 100 mg once or twice daily, depending on the severity of the disease. This type of tetracycline is not rarely the occurrence of photosensitivity reactions, which may be quite dramatic. The advantage of this option is that the anti-inflammatory effect is used without antibiotic resistance due to the low dose.
  • Minocycline: Minocycline is the most effective oral antibiotic to treat common acne, ideal for those who are resistant to tetracyclines. Absorption is less affected by milk and food than tetracycline absorption. Various side effects such as vertigo and pigmentation in areas with inflammation may occur.
  • Hormonal therapy or contraceptive pills: This treatment refers to women with normal laboratory results, which usually respond well to hormone therapy for acne provided they receive oral medication. The specific agents (spironolactone, dexamethasone, prednisone ) function preventing both adrenal androgens and ovarian androgens. Contraceptives increase the chance of thrombosis, and smoking is forbidden during treatment. It should be noted that contraceptive treatment refers to acne itself rather than the scars of acne.
Acne Treatment at Dermatology & Cosmetics Lab
At Dermatology & Cosmetics Lab we use special, advanced treatments for acne which come to replace or complement classic, traditional treatments with creams and pills.  
  • Fractional Laser: Acne pimples and scars accept the powerful effect of Fractional Laser helping fibroblasts to activate collagen production by fighting inflammation, scarring and discolouration of acne.
  • Chemical Peeling Treatment: Chemical peeling that creates a controlled "burn" to remove the outer layer of the skin and help to replenish it.
  • Deep Cleansing Treatment: It is the most popular anti-acne treatment that removes comedones and significantly reduces sebum and pimples.
  • Therapy through autologous PRP: PRP alone or in combination with Fractional Laser reduces acne pimples and heals tissues thanks to its antimicrobial action.

Photodynamic therapy: Photodynamic therapy involves the activation of a chromophore (a substance that absorbs light) to produce monomeric oxygen. This oxygen molecule is toxic and kills the cells. The light used in photodynamic therapy radiates the substances that produce the bacterium of the acne at a specific wavelength, causing the bacterium to produce internally the above toxic oxygen molecule. This causes the "suicide" of the bacterium. Bacteria are eliminated,  inflammation decreases, and due to the increase in collagen and elastin that the light causes, the skin remains elastic, shiny and smooth.
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