Clinical Dermatology
Hyperkeratosis
Hyperkeratosis is characterised by thickening of the most superficial part of the epidermis, called keratin layer. At this level, cells are highly loaded with keratin, a protein that gives them a dry and very hard look. In some cases, there is an abnormal summation of keratin resulting in the creation of plaques or areas with dry skin covered with scabs.

There are two types of hyperkeratosis that occur in the elderly, except for a few exceptions.
 
  • Radiation hyperkeratoses: They are essentially precancerous skin lesions and occur due to excessive exposure to the sun. At first they are very small and are only recognized by touch, while their surface is dry and rough. They usually appear in the bald head, face, lips, throat and shoulders, but can also appear in other parts of the body if they are often exposed to the sun.
  • Seborrheic hyperkeratoses: These are benign skin lesions, non-cancerous, often associated with hereditary predisposition, and usually occur in adults over 40 years of age. They are round or oval, brown or black in color and can reach up to 2 cm in diameter. They often cause pruritus and can be irritated by friction with clothing or injury. The presence of several seborrhoeic hyperkeratosis that causes itching is likely to be associated with some internal malignancy, and this is why a dermatologist is lways needed.
Scientists at Dermatology & Cosmetics Lab recommend removing overdoses in one of the following ways:
  • Cryotherapy: Liquid nitrogen spreads to the affected area to freeze and kill abnormal cells. Dead tissue falls within about a week. Cooling can cause slight discomfort, but it is one of the most effective treatments available. It is recommended in cases of small overcrowding, as it may leave a small scar.
  • Surgery: The removal of hyperkeratosis is surgically performed by scraping. Local anesthesia is required, the incisions are very small and performed in the clinic. It is a simple and painless process.
  • Electrocautery: It is a method that destroys the tissue using electricity. For destruction of the tissue a small probe is used, which is penetrated by electric current. Burning overkills is often an effective and quick method, but there is a possibility of scarring.
  • CO2 Laser: Laser overgrowth removal is the most modern and effective papillary treatment that leads to complete elimination of existing lesions. The treatment is extremely accurate and targeted. The laser beam is directed to the point and destroys it without bleeding and without leaving scars on the skin. Also the surrounding healthy skin remains intact. The use of the CO2 laser is painless, bloodless and immediately after the process the patient immediately returns to his activities.
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