Clinical Dermatology
Eczema
About Eczema
Dermatitis, or eczema as the broad name of the condition, is a skin condition of redness and often intense pruritus. The word eczema comes from the Greek word ex-Zeo (meaning boil-out) and accurately describes the situation when skin irritation is caused in the outer layers. Although this irritation is normally caused by external causes such as cleaning fluids, or wool fabrics, it may also be caused by psychological factors such as stress, and a very common cause of eczema is allergic reaction to food.

One in ten people will experience eczema at some point in their life. But it is more common in children. 3/4 of those with eczema are teenagers, while it is a little more common among girls than boys. It may also occur in infancy. Those who have eczema in infancy and childhood experience a symptom recession after the age of 30 years. Those who still have a post-age eczema will get a chronic disease with recessions and exactions depending on the season.
 
What are the types of eczema?
The most common types of eczema are:
  • Atopic dermatitis: Atopic dermatitis is a chronic, complex and recurrent dermatopathy. It is the basic manifestation of the body’s allergy to various allergenic stimuli of the environment. According to studies, about 30% of children have a family history of allergies or other symptoms of allergies, such as allergic rhinitis, conjunctivitis, allergic asthma or dry skin. Atopic dermatitis is manifested by severe dry skin due to increased water loss in combination with intense pruritus. If the disease is on the rise, typical eczema lesions are present: bubbles, redness, erosion and scaling which easily lead to skin thickening and cracks. In the majority of cases, atopic dermatitis passes through adulthood. However, doctors are advised to undergo analytical tests to identify the allergen that causes dermatitis in order for the patient to know the best way to cope with the symptoms of allergy.
  • Irritant Contact Eczema: It is caused by a variety of external chemical or physical substances. However, they also play a role in exposure to these substances, their cumulative effect, environmental factors (increased heat, increased humidity) and intrinsic factors (individual sensitivity, individual hygiene, skin type). It is generally accepted that certain categories of professionals are 100% affected by mild irritative dermatitis. The acute type is usually caused by a substance, while the chronic type is usually responsible for more substances. The substances and agents that most often cause irritative dermatitis are detergents, cosmetics, antiseptics, alkalis, various industrial oils, plants and various strong acids.
  • Allergic Contact Eczema: This type of dermatitis is caused by various substances in the environment, getting into contact with the skin. The result is dermatitis whenever the responsible substance comes into contact with the skin, whereas the phenomenon does not occur cumulatively as with irritant contact dermatitis. People who suffer from allergic contact eczema must definitely get an allergenic test to find out as soon as possible which factor in their environment affects them. Allergic contact eczema usually causes household materials, plants, clothing and accessories as well as various medicines.
  • Seborrheic Eczema: It is a common inflammatory dermatopathy that causes the formation of off-white plates on oily areas, such as the scalp or the inside of the ear. It may appear with or without skin redness. When it occurs in infants, it is called ninidas and it is completely harmless. You recover quickly by sebborheic ecozema, while it is rarely accompanied by pruritus. It is believed that seborrheic eczema is due to a combination of overproduction of sebum and irritation by a yeast called Malessezia. Stress, fatigue, extreme temperatures, oily skin, unusual skin wiping or cleansing, the use of alcohol-containing lotions, dermatopathies or obesity may increase the risk of developing this type of eczema. However, it is a chronic condition that can be controlled through treatment. It often has extended periods of inertia followed by outbursts, especially when there are psychological reasons involved.

How to Treat Eczema
Unfortunately, there is no permanent cure for eczema. The treatment of eczema aims at hydrating the skin, preventing its dryness, but also preventing other factors from causing it and ultimately improving the quality of life of the patient. The most common therapies that dermatologists suggest for eczema and patient relief are:
  • Cortisone creams and ointments that quickly improve the appearance of the skin are used for a limited time and only locally.
  • Antibiotics when there is evidence of contamination.
  • Antihistamines, either as creams or as pills for more difficult cases.
  • UVA and UVB light therapy
  • Oral cortisone or cyclosporine. This treatment is recommended in very severe cases, requiring frequent monitoring by the doctor and testing of laboratory parameters.
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